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tpo-17
tpo-17 - Writing - question1
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In the past century, the steady growth of the human population and the corresponding increasing in agriculture and pesticide use have caused much harm to wildlife in the United States – birds in particular. Unfortunately for birds, these trends are likely to continue, with the result that the number of birds in the United States will necessarily decline.

First, as human populations and settlements continue to expand, birds,natural habitats will continue to disappear. Forests, wetlands, and grasslands will give way to ever more homes, malls, and offices. As the traditional areas suitable for birds keep decreasing, so will the size of the birdspopulations that depend on those vanishing habitats.

Second, agricultural activities must increase to keep pace with the growing human population. The growth of agriculture will also result in the further destruction of bird habitats as more and more wilderness areas are converted to agricultural use. As a result, bird populations in rural areas will continue to decline.

Third, as human settlements expand and agriculture increases, the use of chemical pesticides will also increase. Pesticides are poisons designed to kill agricultural and home garden pests, such as insects, but inevitable, pesticides get into the water and into the food chain for birds where they can harm birds. Birds that eat the poisoned insects or drink contaminated water can die as a result, and even if pesticides do not kill birds outright, they can prevent them from reproducing successfully. So, pesticides have significantly contributed to declines in bird population, and because there will continue to be a need to control agricultural pests in the future, this decline will continue.

The passage claims that there will be fewer and fewer birds, but the arguments used to support this claim are unconvincing. 

 First, it’s true that urban growth has been bad for some types of birds, but urban development actually provides better and larger habitats for other types. So much so, that city and suburban dwellers often complain about increased bird populations – seagulls at landfills, pigeons on the streets and so on. Even birds like hawks and falcons can now be found in cities, where they prey on the increasing populations of pigeons and rodents. So, it’s not going to be a story of uniform decline of bird populations in the future. Some populations may shrink, but others will grow. 

As for agriculture, it’s true that it too will increase in the future, but not in the way assumed by the reading passage. The truth is, in the United States, less and less land is being used for agriculture every year. Increases in agricultural production have resulted from and will continue to result from the introduction of new, more productive varieties of crops. These new crops produce more food per unit of land, and as a result, there’s no need to destroy wilderness areas. 

And third, while it’s certainly true that traditional pesticides have been destructive to birds, it’s incorrect to project this history into the future. Now that, people are aware of the possible consequences of traditional pesticides, two changes have occurred. First, new and much less toxic pesticides have been developed, and that’s important. Second, and perhaps more importantly, there is a growing trend to develop more pest resistant crops, crops that are genetically designed to be unattractive to pests. Pest resistant crops greatly reduce the need for chemical pesticides, and best of all, pest resistant crops don’t harm birds at all.

In the lecture, the professor claims that the problem indicated by the reading passage is unreliable. She then offers some evidence to contradict the point that the population of birds will decline.

On one hand, the professor claims that it is true that the growing population of human being and the expanding settlement of human can reduce the natural habitat for birds. However, she indicates that urbanization may increase the population of some kinds of birds, such as pigeons and sea gulls. It is not possible for the population of all birds to decline as the reading passage asserts.

On the other hand, the professor says that it is true more agriculture will be in need. However, human now increase the agriculture by introducing more productive plants instead of putting more lands into use for agriculture. will not the number of natural habitat decrease.

In addition, the professor indicates that nowadays people are aware of the negative effects of traditional pesticide. In modern society, people invent new kind of less toxic pesticide and pest resistant crops to avoid pest without harming the environment. Therefore, it is less likely that the population of birds will be affected by traditional pesticide.

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题目: Summarise the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
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